The caldera of Batur Volcano is one of the volcano caldera in Indonesia that has become a global geopark region. Batur Caldera has been set on 20 September 2012 as part of the Global Geoparks Network (GGN) by UNESCO. The area has been proposed by the Government of Indonesia since 2009, and is now an area of the third geopark in Southeast Asia.
Let's take a closer look to the Batur Global Geopark!
Global Geoparks Network (GGN)
The Global Geoparks Network (also known as the Global Network of National Geoparks), is a UNESCO assisted network established in 1998. The geoparks initiative was in response to the perceived need for an international initiative that recognizes sites representing an earth science interest.
Geoparks hold records of past climate change, an educators on current climate change and the best practice approach to utilizing renewable energy and green tourism. Geopark is basically combines the protection values, education, and local economic growth based geotourism.
Geotourism adds to ecotourism’s principal focus on plants (flora) and animals (fauna) by adding a third dimension of the abiotic environment. Thus it is growing around the world through the growth of geoparks as well as independently in many natural and urban areas where tourism’s focus in on the geological environment.
GGN aims at enhancing the value of such sites while at the same time creating employment and promoting regional economic development. The development plan should be integrated into the regional spatial planning in areas that have been built by the region.
Batur Global Geopark
Batur Caldera has some advantages and uniqueness as the consideration in the criterion of Global Geoparks Network, include:
- Batur Caldera is one of the most beautiful caldera in the world (van Bemmelen, 1949), with a size of 13.8 x 10 km. Coupled with other caldera structure formed at the center which has a smaller diameter of 7.5 km. Mount Batur itself has a height of 1,717 meters above sea level.
- The ash deposition of the ancient eruption of Batur Volcano produced very thick, solidified and is currently used for building materials for shrine (temple), sculpture and more.
- Has a unique biodiversity that managed by the Nature Park, forest plants generally consist of several species. There is a unique fauna, monkeys, living around the crater of Mount Batur.
- There are species of the famous dog, called Gembrong (Anjing Kintamani), the shape of his face like a wolf, while the body has similarities with Chowchow in China.
- Had one of the very unique culture that is Trunyan Culture (Burial Culture), where the bodies laid out under the tree of Tarumenyan.
A caldera is a large volcanic depression (collapse), a type of volcanic crater, formed by the collapse of an emptied magma chamber. The depression or collapse often originates of a single cataclysmic eruption, or it may occur in stages as the result of effusive volcanic eruptions from the system.
A collapse is triggered by the emptying of the magma chamber beneath the volcano. If enough magma is ejected, the chamber is emptied Unable to support the weight of the volcanic edifice above it. Then the center of the volcano within the ring fracture begins to collapse. The total area that collapses (or caldera) may be Reached Thousands of square kilometers.
Batur Geo-trail Attractions and Routes
The major attractions are indicated by the white circle:
1. Batur Caldera 1
2. Batur Caldera 2
3. Crater 1
4. Crater 2 (located between white circle Number 3 and Number 5)
5. Crater 3
6. Mt. Abang
7. Bukit Dalam Cinder Cones
8. Bunbulan Cinder Cones
9. Payang Cinder Cones
10. Buraknya Ladslide
11. Yehmampeh Cinder Cones
12. Lava 1849
(Please note! This information is based on brochure of Geotrail Map Of Batur Caldera Geopark (public published). The circle is missing but you can notice there are two white circle Number 19, located near the yellow square Number 3 and Number 9. But on other information, The Detail Master-Plan of District Of Kintamani or Rencana Detail Tata Ruang (RDTR) Kecamatan Kintamani, shows the white circle Number 12 (Lava 1849) is located at the same exact location of white circle Number 19 near the yellow square Number 3.)
13. Lava 1888
14. Lava 1904
15. Lava 1905
16. Lava 1921
17. Lava 1926
18. Lava 1963
19. Lava 1968
20. Lava 1974
21. Lake Batur
The geotrail routes are indicated by the yellow square and its major attractions:
1. Gunung Batur Museum – Penelokan : Caldera View
2. Panelokan – Kedisan : Lake View
3. Kedisan – Seked – Toya Bungkah : Lava 1888, 1849 and Features
4. Pos P3GB – Puraknya – Puncak : Camping Ground, Purakya Hill, and Batur Volcano Peak
5. Toya Bungkah – Lava Bantal : Lava Bantal, Reforesting, The shooting site of Julia Robert
6. Toya Bungkah – Songan : Hot Spring, Temple of Hulun Danu in Batur, Caldera Wall
7. Songan : Fissure Eruption, Bunbulan Hill
8. Kawah III – Sampeanwani : Crater III (1963, 1968, 1974, 1994, 1999, 2000), Sampeanwani Cone
9. Sampeanwani – Seked – Panelokan : Lava (1905, 1926, 1963), Caldera View
10. Yehmampeh – Bukit Mentik – Bukit Payang : Yehmampeh Cinder Cone and Cladera Wall II
11. Hulu Danu – Blandingan : Caldera Wall I
12. Pinggan – Sukawana – Kintamani : Dalem Balingkang Temple, Kintamani Dog, Penulisan Temple, PELNI, and 3 Religion Graveyard.
13. Manikliu – Lembean – Bunutin – Ulian – Gunung Bau – Awan – Serai Sukawana : Agro-tourism (Orange and Coffee)
14. Kuburan 3 Agama – Penelokan : Temple of Hulun Danu Batur, Caldera and Lake Batur
15. Penelokan – Kedisan – Buahan – Abang – Trunyan : Panorama (View) and Trunyan Traditional Village
B1. Dermaga Kedisan – Toya Bungkah : Lake Tourism , Pillour Lava and Shooting Site of Julia Robert
B2. Toya Bungkah – Trunyan : Lake Tourism, Trunyan Traditional Village and Funeral
B3. Trunyan – Pura Hulun Danu : Lake Tourism and Cultural Tourism
Batur Global Geopark is a harmonious blend of the three diversity included geology (geodiversity), biological (biodiversity) and culture (cultural diversity). At last, the management goal is to build and develop local economies with the protection of geological, biological, and culture diversity which contained in the region. It is hoped that the existence of the first Geopark in Indonesia will impact the emerging of another Geopark elsewhere in the world.
- wikipedia.org _ Mount Batur _ on August 10, 2016
- wikipedia.org _ Caldera _ on August 12, 2016
- wikipedia.org _ Geotourism _ on August 12, 2016
- wikipedia.org _ Geopark _ on August 12, 2016
- wikipedia.org _ Global Geoparks Network _ on August 12, 2016
- wikipedia.org _ Members of the Global Geoparks Network _ on August 12, 2016
- Image : Original Collection